Categories
Soccer Soccer Ball Information

Drag vs Speed

Foot kicking ball Drag vs Speed

The variation of drag force with ball speed. At high speeds, the drag force falls, which means that the ball does not slow down as much as expected.

First published in Physics World magazine, June 1998 pp25–27.  https://physicsworld.com/a/the-physics-of-football/

Categories
Soccer Soccer Ball Information

Soccer Turbulent Air & Drag

Football on fire Soccer Turbulent Air & Drag

When the airflow over a ball is turbulent, the boundary layer sticks to the ball almost until the air has completely passed over the ball. This produces late separation and a small drag.

First published in Physics World magazine, June 1998 pp25–27.  https://physicsworld.com/a/the-physics-of-football/

Categories
Soccer Soccer Ball Information

Ball Drag

Football 3D Ball Drag
The drag coefficient of a ball plotted against Reynold’s number – a non-dimensional parameter that takes into account both the velocity and diameter of the ball. The drag coefficient drops suddenly when the airflow at the surface of the sphere changes from laminar to turbulent.

The position of the discontinuity depends on the roughness of the surface of the ball. Footballs are relatively smooth and so need to be kicked relatively hard to gain enough speed to move into the turbulent phase.First published in Physics World magazine, June 1998 pp25–27.  https://physicsworld.com/a/the-physics-of-football/
Categories
Soccer Soccer Ball Information

Spinning Ball

Soccer ball and boot Spinning Ball

A bird’s-eye view of a football spinning about an axis perpendicular to the flow of air across it. The air travels faster relative to the center of the ball where the periphery of the ball is moving in the same direction as the airflow (left). This reduces the pressure, according to Bernoulli’s principle.

The pressure increases on the other side of the ball, where the air travels slower relative to the center of the ball (right). There is therefore an imbalance in the forces, and the ball deflects in the same sense as the spin – from bottom right to top left. This lift force is also known as the “Magnus force”, after the 19th-century German physicist Gustav Magnus.First published in Physics World magazine, June 1998 pp25–27.  https://physicsworld.com/a/the-physics-of-football/

Categories
Soccer Soccer Ball Information

FAQ Soccer Ball Physics

Questions about Pressure and Soccer Balls

Soccer ball on grass FAQ Soccer Ball Physics
  • How does the amount of air in a soccer ball affect how far it travels when struck by the same force? The amount of air or air pressure in a soccer ball effects how far the ball will travel when struck by the same force.  The higher air pressure that is put into a soccer ball improves the ball’s rebound off the foot of a player. More energy is transferred to a “stiff” ball in an elastic collision. In other words, the ball deforms less during the impact, so there’s less energy lost to deformation.
  • Does the atmospheric air pressure effect how far a soccer ball travels when struck by the same force? The atmospheric air pressure (the air surrounding the ball) also plays a role in how far a ball travels. At lower pressure, there’s less air friction. You can compare it to kicking the ball in a tank of water to kicking the ball on the moon. Balls go farther at high altitude because of the reduced drag from the air, which is thinner as you go higher up. So there’s a case where “reduced” air pressure makes the ball go farther.

    Also, the materials that the soccer ball is made out of effects how far the ball will travel…but that is another question and experiment.
  • How much air pressure should I put into a soccer ball? Use Proper Air PressureDo not over or under pressurize a ball. Use the manufactures recommended air pressure that is printed on most balls. Most soccer balls have a pressure rating of 6 to 8 lbs. or 0.6 or 0.8 BAR. It is recommended that you use a pressure gauge to measure the exact amount of pressure in a ball after inflating and before use. BAR or PSI or LBS?Some soccer balls have recommended pressure values indicated in BAR while others have the values indicated in PSI or LBS.  To convert the pressure values, use the following formulas:To convert BAR (KGS) to PSI (Lbs.):Answer = 14.5037 X The amount of BAR(KGS)For example: A soccer ball has a recommended pressure of 0.6 BAR labeled on it.  To convert BAR in Pounds Per Square Inch (PSI), multiply 0.6 times 14.5037. The answer is 8.7 PSI or Lbs.To convert PSI (Lbs.) to BAR(KGS):Answer = .068948 X The amount of PSI(Lbs.)For example: A soccer ball has a recommended pressure of 7.9 Lbs. (PSI) labeled on it.  To convert Pounds Per Square Inch (PSI) into BAR, multiply 7.9 times .068948. The answer is 0.545 BAR.
  • How Do I inflate my soccer balls? Soccer balls lose air pressure over time. Sometimes over a few days (soccer balls that use butyl bladders keep air pressure longer than balls that use latex bladders). Be sure to check the pressure frequently to make sure the ball is properly inflated.  Therefore, invest in a good ball pump, have a supply of inflation needles and use a low pressure gauge to measure for proper inflation. Before you first inflate a soccer ball, place a couple drops of silicone oil or silicone lubricant spray or glycerin oil into the valve. You can purchase one of the oils or spray at your local hardware store. Using one of the lubricants will improve the life of the valve and lubricate the valve for easy insertion of the inflation needle.  Always moisten the inflation needle before you insert it into the valve. Preferably, use some silicon oil, silicon spray or glycerin oil to moisten the needle.  However; most people use spit…yuk, but that is not recommended. Manufacturers recommend that you reduce the air pressure in your match balls after a game to reduce the amount of stress on the ball seams or stitching.  Be sure to inflate the ball back to proper pressure before the match.   
  • Why do I always have to pump up even expensive balls? Many balls use bladders made out of latex. Natural Latex Rubber bladders offer the softest feel and response, but do not provide the best air retention. Micro pores slowly let air escape. Balls with natural rubber bladders need to be re-inflated more often than balls with butyl bladders. Even after one or two days, the latex bladder will leak enough air so that you will have to inflate the ball back to recommended pressure. Some balls use carbon-latex bladders in which the carbon powder helps to close the micro pores. Soccer balls with carbon latex bladders usually increase air retention to approximately one week. Of course, check the ball for punctures that may cause the air to leak out.Soccer Balls with Butyl bladders or PU bladders offer an excellent combination of feel and air retention and can be found in most middle to upper priced balls.  Air retention is significantly increased to weeks and months instead of days compared to balls with latex bladders.
  • Why do some soccer balls get bigger over time?  Many soccer balls do tend to get larger over time. This is due to the pressure of the air in the bladder against the linings and cover.  Over time the material and stitching may stretch out causing the ball to become larger. Also, soccer ball abuse may cause the stitching to loosen and the ball to expand.

Questions about Soccer Ball Material Physics

I’m still working on this part…check back soon.

Questions about Curving a Soccer Ball

  • How does a ball curve when you kick it?  For the answer to this question and others relating to the physics of a curving soccer ball, click here.
Categories
Soccer Soccer Balls

OFFICIAL LA LIGA MATCH BALL 2014/2015 – ORDEM 2

La Liga Official Match Ball 2014 2015 Ordem OFFICIAL LA LIGA MATCH BALL 2014/2015 - ORDEM 2

The Nike® Ordem 2 is the official match ball of the La Liga 2014/2015 season. Charged with high-performance technologies, this premium constructed soccer ball features Aerowtrac grooves and a micro-textured cover for true, precision flight. Its fuse-welded surface and 12-wing restricted bladder offer superior touch and responsiveness off the foot, while RaDaR (Rapid Decision and Response) technology with depth-enhanced graphics enhance visibility for faster reactions on the field.

FEATURES:

  • Official match ball of the La Liga League
  • Nike® Aerowtrac grooves and micro-textured casing design equalize air flow over the surface of the ball for great control and accurate ball flight
  • Restricted 12-wing carbon latex bladder for unbelievable responsiveness and superior touch and shape
  • Fuse-welded three-layer synthetic leather casing provides a great touch and maximum response
  • Compressed Polyethylene layer helps store energy which is then released at launch
  • Cross-linked Nitrogen-expanded foam layer for excellent shape retention
  • Polyester support fabric improves structure and stability
  • Perfect sphericity makes this ball fly faster, farther, and with more accuracy
  • Nike® RaDaR technology with depth-enhanced performance graphics helps in peripheral and central vision so you can react quickly
  • FIFA Quality Approved, the highest FIFA ranking
  • Official La Liga logo for pride
  • Manufacturer’s two-year stitch and shape guarantee
  • Materials: 40% synthetic leather/30% rubber/20% polyester/10% cotton
La Liga Official Match Ball 2014 2015 Ordem B OFFICIAL LA LIGA MATCH BALL 2014/2015 - ORDEM 2
Ordem Serie A_English Premier_La Liga Official Match Ball (1) OFFICIAL LA LIGA MATCH BALL 2014/2015 - ORDEM 2

Also official match ball for the English Premier League and Serie A

Categories
Soccer Soccer Balls

OFFICIAL SERIE A MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2

Serie A Match Ball Ordem 2014 2015 OFFICIAL SERIE A MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2

The Nike® Ordem 2 is the official match ball of the Serie A 2014/2015 season. Charged with high-performance technologies, this premium constructed soccer ball features Aerowtrac grooves and a micro-textured cover for true, precision flight. Its fuse-welded surface and 12-wing restricted bladder offer superior touch and responsiveness off the foot, while RaDaR (Rapid Decision and Response) technology with depth-enhanced graphics enhance visibility for faster reactions on the field.

FEATURES:

  • Official match ball of the Serie A League
  • Nike® Aerowtrac grooves and micro-textured casing design equalize air flow over the surface of the ball for great control and accurate ball flight
  • Restricted 12-wing carbon latex bladder for unbelievable responsiveness and superior touch and shape
  • Fuse-welded three-layer synthetic leather casing provides a great touch and maximum response
  • Compressed Polyethylene layer helps store energy which is then released at launch
  • Cross-linked Nitrogen-expanded foam layer for excellent shape retention
  • Polyester support fabric improves structure and stability
  • Perfect sphericity makes this ball fly faster, farther, and with more accuracy
  • Nike® RaDaR technology with depth-enhanced performance graphics helps in peripheral and central vision so you can react quickly
  • FIFA Quality Approved, the highest FIFA ranking
  • Official Serie A logo for pride
  • Manufacturer’s two-year stitch and shape guarantee
  • Materials: 40% synthetic leather/30% rubber/20% polyester/10% cotton
Serie A Match Ball Ordem 2014 2015 B OFFICIAL SERIE A MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2
Ordem Serie A_English Premier_La Liga Official Match Ball OFFICIAL SERIE A MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2

Also official match ball for the English Premier League and La Liga

Categories
Soccer Soccer Balls

OFFICIAL EPL MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2

OFFICIAL EPL MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2

The Nike® Ordem 2 is the official match ball of the English Premier League 2014/2015 season. Charged with high-performance technologies, this premium constructed soccer ball features Aerowtrac grooves and a micro-textured cover for true, precision flight. Its fuse-welded surface and 12-wing restricted bladder offer superior touch and responsiveness off the foot, while RaDaR (Rapid Decision and Response) technology with depth-enhanced graphics enhance visibility for faster reactions on the field.

FEATURES:

  • Official match ball of the English Premier League
  • Nike® Aerowtrac grooves and micro-textured casing design equalize air flow over the surface of the ball for great control and accurate ball flight
  • Restricted 12-wing carbon latex bladder for unbelievable responsiveness and superior touch and shape
  • Fuse-welded three-layer synthetic leather casing provides a great touch and maximum response
  • Compressed Polyethylene layer helps store energy which is then released at launch
  • Cross-linked Nitrogen-expanded foam layer for excellent shape retention
  • Polyester support fabric improves structure and stability
  • Perfect sphericity makes this ball fly faster, farther, and with more accuracy
  • Nike® RaDaR technology with depth-enhanced performance graphics helps in peripheral and central vision so you can react quickly
  • FIFA Quality Approved, the highest FIFA ranking
  • Official Premier League logo for pride
  • Manufacturer’s two-year stitch and shape guarantee
  • Materials: 40% synthetic leather/30% rubber/20% polyester/10% cotton
  • Vendor Colors: White / Black / Process Blue
English-Premier-League-ball-NIKE-Ordem-2014-2015-season OFFICIAL EPL MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2

2014/2015 English Premier League – ORDEM 2 Hi Vis

EPL Ordem 2 Hi Viz OFFICIAL EPL MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2
English Premier League Ordem Hi Vis D OFFICIAL EPL MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2
English Premier League Ordem Hi Vis B OFFICIAL EPL MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2
Premier league logo close up OFFICIAL EPL MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2
Ordem Serie A_English Premier_La Liga Official Match Ball OFFICIAL EPL MATCH BALL 2014/2015 ORDEM 2

Also official match ball for the La Liga and Serie A

Categories
Soccer Soccer Balls

OFFICIAL 2015 MLS MATCH BALL

OFFICIAL 2015 MLS MATCH BALL

December 8, 2014 – Adidas and Major League Soccer unveiled NATIVO, the official match ball for 2015, the League’s 20th season. NATIVO’s bold aesthetic meshes with the new MLS brand identity while the ball’s materials and technology meet the unrivaled standards set by Brazuca, the official match ball of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil™.

The NATIVO structure features six identical panels to optimize aerodynamics, stability and symmetry in flight. A unique, micro-texture surface provides improved grip, touch, and control. As Adidas’ most tested ball ever, NATIVO performs well in all conditions and draws praise from professionals and amateurs around the world.

“Our partnership with MLS is incredibly important to us because together, we’re ensuring our homegrown athletes have viable opportunities to play soccer at the highest level,” said Ernesto Bruce, Director of Soccer at Adidas America. “Entering the league’s 20th season, we’re excited to bring our most advanced ball ever to the soccer pitch so we can help players perform at their best.” .

NATIVO’s design is an expression of the new MLS brand. Prominent maple leaf and star images represent the League’s two home nations, Canada and the United States, while the red, white and blue reflect the colors of these nations and the MLS brand. The distinctive NATIVO name alludes to the ball’s stature in the game and pride in the domestic League. NATIVO features the new MLS logo, the Adidas logo, along with the signature of MLS Commissioner Don Garber.

MLS_MATCH_BALL2 (1) OFFICIAL 2015 MLS MATCH BALL
Categories
Soccer Soccer Balls

OFFICIAL MLS MATCH BALL 2016 – NATIVO

MLS_2016_BALL_22 OFFICIAL MLS MATCH BALL 2016 - NATIVO

Same ball construction as the Brazuca.

Adidas and Major League Soccer unveiled a newly designed NATIVO, the official match ball for the 2016 season. The most tested MLS ball to date, NATIVO utilizes the latest Adidas technology to deliver the highest level of performance to the entire league. 

Extensively tested by teams around the world, every element of NATIVO’s construction has been scrutinized to provide the greatest control and accuracy. The Adidas NATIVO includes a unique symmetry of six identical panels alongside a textured surface that has been updated to ensure the truest flight of the ball.   

“Each year we strive to take the official match ball to the next level of performance,” said Zola Short, Senior Sports Marketing Manager, Adidas. “The NATIVO delivers on that goal while giving clubs and fans a look that’s unique to Major League Soccer.”

 The NATIVO’s design continues to be inspired by MLS’ three pillars of Club, Country and Community. Infusing the flags of the league’s two home countries, the United States and Canada, NATIVO features new stars, stripes and maple leaf decals across the paneling. The ball is imprinted with the MLS crest and Adidas logo along with the signature of MLS Commissioner Don Garber. 


MLS Matchball 2015

MLS Matchball 2017